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Scritto da Adriano Fabris   
Martedì 06 Dicembre 2016 16:19

Copertina Etiche Applicate Teoria 2016 2Il presente fascicolo di «Teoria» trova origine nel Convegno “Le prassi della mente e del corpo. Voci dalle etiche applicate”, svoltosi presso l’Università di Torino il 4 e 5 giugno 2015 e promosso dal PRIN 2010-2011 su “La riflessione morale di fronte al mind/body problem. Problemi storici e prospettive teoriche”, progetto che ha visto come Coordinatore scientifico nazionale il prof. Franco Biasutti (Università di Padova) e come Responsabile scientifico dell’unità di ricerca torinese il prof. Andrea Poma. Il Convegno mirava al duplice obiettivo di promuovere una occasione di confronto e di dibattito su alcune applicazioni contemporanee dell’etica, offrendo in particolare a dottorande e a dottorandi una possibilità per arricchire il loro studio specialistico, e di diffondere i risultati di una variegata ricerca sulla filosofia morale che da tempo coinvolge, da prospettive teoriche e su ambiti specifici tra loro differenti, alcuni docenti dell’Ateneo torinese.
Agli atti del Convegno sono qui ora affiancati saggi che servono a rendere conto di declinazioni dell’etica che in quella occasione di lavoro filosofico condiviso erano state solo parzialmente toccate o non si era potuto prendere in esame. Ne risulta un numero monografico che, in linea con il progetto culturale della terza serie della Rivista, propone una idea di filosofia intesa quale approccio capace di confrontarsi con vari ambiti delle pratiche umane, sia perché aiuta a comprenderli, vale a dire a chiarirli, a definirli e a fondarli, sia perché è capace di problematizzarli, nel senso che è consapevole del fatto che la dimensione critica che caratterizza il metodo filosofico si traduce nella sua capacità di intendere i problemi come luoghi da abitare piuttosto che come ostacoli da rimuovere, data la fecondità di cui sono portatori, e di vedere di conseguenza nelle soluzioni a essi un momento di passaggio verso nuovi modi di porre il problema stesso.

Senza pretese di esaustività, all’evidenza impossibili da soddisfare se solo si tiene conto della estesa produzione filosofica che ha riguardato negli ultimi anni le singole etiche applicate, questo fascicolo propone una introduzione alle principali e offre al contempo precise proposte teoriche al loro riguardo, grazie ai contributi di validi specialisti: di Gianluca Cuozzo per l’etica ambientale, con la formulazione di una teoria dell’azione umana che assuma come orientamento l’idea della sua reversibilità rispetto agli effetti che produce nell’ambiente circostante; di Andrew Linzey e di Luisella Battaglia per quanto attiene il rapporto etico tra esseri umani e animali, nel primo caso da un punto di vista antropocentrico, con attenzione alla prospettiva religiosa, nel secondo guardando a una teoria politica dei diritti degli animali che riconosce a questi ultimi lo status di cittadini; di Maurizio Mori per la bioetica umana, intesa come movimento culturale diffuso nella società civile e come riflessione organizzata a livello accademico; di João Maria André sull’etica della cura, quale atteggiamento capace di fare fronte a situazioni di vulnerabilità che caratterizzano diverse solitudini antropologiche; di Luca Bertolino sulle pratiche filosofiche, nel loro confrontarsi con alcuni temi di etica applicata, specialmente con la cosiddetta questione terapeutica; di Eva De Clercq sull’etica di genere, con un accento particolare su alcuni recenti modelli di etica narrativa; di Adriano Fabris sull’agire umano nella sua relazione con l’agire delle macchine e su come proprio la riflessione sulla nozione di “agire” implichi un ripensamento di quella di “etica”; di Giovanni Scarafile e di Veronica Neri, rispettivamente sull’etica delle immagini e sull’etica della comunicazione pubblicitaria, determinanti per orientarsi consapevolmente nella odierna realtà mediatica; di Roberto Burlando e di Robert Audi sul rapporto tra etica ed economia, osservato dal punto di vista di un economista, il primo, che è interessato alle intersezioni della propria disciplina soprattutto con quelle umanistiche, e dal punto di vista di un filosofo, il secondo, che sostiene la centralità della virtù in etica, ma riconosce pure la complementarità dell’etica della norma. Concludono il fascicolo due contributi, il cui registro discorsivo è volutamente quello del saggio anziché di un articolo scientifico – probabilmente perché nella sua applicazione ai vari ambiti della vita umana la filosofia morale è anche chiamata a ripensare la forma del suo comunicarsi –, nei quali la questione etica è sollevata in relazione alla attuale realtà sociale, con indicazioni per pensare alternative a essa, tanto nell’ottica di promuovere nuove teorie che alimentino la passione critica (Enrico Donaggio), quanto nella direzione di una emancipazione che vede nella inemendabilità del reale la possibilità della liberazione dalla mobilitazione totale cui si è sottomessi (Maurizio Ferraris).
Muoversi sul terreno delle etiche applicate, ritenendo che su di esso si giochi l’efficacia delle dottrine morali, non significa peraltro misconoscere la necessità di una riflessione sul fondamento e sui principî dell’agire morale, dai quali potere dedurre regole di comportamento specifiche in relazione al campo di applicazione preso in esame. Proprio il concetto di “applicazione”, del resto, se da un lato vuole richiamare la concretezza dei problemi che si è chiamati di volta in volta ad affrontare, forti anche di specifiche competenze afferenti ai saperi positivi, dall’altro rinvia inevitabilmente a un orizzonte in cui quanto è applicato trova la propria giustificazione, il proprio λόγον διδόναι. Come il lettore avrà modo di cogliere, i contributi qui raccolti si caratterizzano per diverse fondazioni dell’etica, talora esplicitate dagli stessi autori, talaltra solo mostrate in controluce, ma che nel complesso aiutano a rendersi consapevoli del vasto e ricco panorama rappresentato dalla filosofia morale contemporanea.



This issue of «Teoria» results from the Conference “Le prassi della mente e del corpo. Voci dalle etiche applicate” (“The Practices of Mind and Body. Voices from Applied Ethics”), held at the University of Turin on 4th and 5th June 2015 and sponsored by Project PRIN 2010-2011 on “La riflessione morale di fronte al mind/body problem. Problemi storici e prospettive teoriche” (“Ethics and the Mind/Body Problem. Historical Issues and Theoretical Perspectives”). The National Scientific Coordinator of the Project was Professor Franco Biasutti (University of Padua) and the person in charge of the Research Unit in Turin was Professor Andrea Poma. The Conference pursued a twofold objective: to promote a debate on some contemporary applications of ethics, offering in particular to doctoral students a chance to deepen their specialist knowledge, and to disseminate the results of a multifaceted research on moral philosophy that has long involved some professors of the University of Turin, coming from various theoretical perspectives and focusing on different specific areas.
The proceedings of the Conference are here presented together with essays that aim to give an account of declinations of ethics that were then touched on only partially or not at all. The result is a special issue that, in line with the cultural project of the third series of this journal, proposes a view of philosophy as an approach capable of dealing with various fields of human practice, both because it helps to understand them – namely to clarify, define and found them – and because it is able to problematize them. In fact, this approach is aware that the critical dimension of the philosophical method lies in its ability to understand problems as places to inhabit rather than as obstacles to be removed, given the meaningfulness they bear, and therefore to see their solutions as a transition towards new ways of posing the problem itself.
With no pretence of being exhaustive, which is obviously impossible given the extensive philosophical production that has recently involved individual applied ethics, this issue offers an introduction to the main studies, while providing precise theoretical proposals about them, thanks to the contributions of valid specialists including, for instance, Gianluca Cuozzo on environmental ethics, with a theory of human agency endowed with reversibility in relation to the surrounding environment. Andrew Linzey’s and Luisella Battaglia’s essays regard the ethical relationship between human beings and animals, in the first case from an anthropocentric viewpoint, with attention to the religious perspective, in the second case by looking at a political theory of animal rights that grants them the status of citizens. Maurizio Mori considers human bioethics, understood both as a cultural movement spread in the civil society and as an academic discipline; João Maria André theorizes an ethics of care able to face situations of vulnerability that characterize different anthropological solitudes; my own paper looks at philosophical practice, in its dealing with some issues of applied ethics, especially with the so-called therapeutic question. Eva De Clercq’s contribution is about gender ethics, with an emphasis on some recent models of narrative
ethics. Adriano Fabris writes about human action in its relationship with the actions of machines and how the very reflection on the notion of “action” entails a rethinking of that of “ethics”. Giovanni Scarafile and Veronica Neri address respectively the ethics of the images and the ethics in advertising, both crucial to a conscious orientation in today’s media reality. Roberto Burlando and Robert Audi tackle the relationship between ethics and economics, observed from the point of view of an economist, in the first case, focusing on the intersections of his discipline with the humanities, and from the point of view of a philosopher, in the second case, claiming the central role of virtue ethics, but also recognizing the complementarity of rule ethics. In conclusion to the issue there are two contributions whose style is deliberately that of an essay rather than a scientific article – probably because, in its application to various spheres of human life, moral philosophy is also called upon to rethink the shape of its self-communication. In them, the ethical question is raised in relation to the current social reality, with indications to conceive alternatives to it, in order to promote both new theories fostering critical passion (Enrico Donaggio) and an emancipation that sees in the unamendability of the real the possibility of liberation from the total mobilization we are submitted to (Maurizio Ferraris).
Focusing on applied ethics, taking them as the ground on which moral doctrines can verify their effectiveness, does not mean giving up recognizing the need for a reflection on the foundation and the principles of moral action, from which to deduce the specific rules of conduct in relation to the field under consideration. Indeed, on the one hand, the very concept of “application” aims to underline the concreteness of the problems that we are called to deal with, also in the light of specific skills related to scientific knowledge. On the other hand, it inevitably refers to a horizon in which what is applied finds its justification – its own λόγον διδόναι. As the reader will see, the contributions collected here are characterized by different ethical foundations – sometimes made explicit by the authors themselves, sometimes only hinted at – that overall help one become aware of the vast and rich landscape of contemporary moral philosophy.

Luca Bertolino
English translation by Sarah De Sanctis

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Gianluca Cuozzo

Etica ed ecologia: agire contro i tempi, tra sistema e creatività

pp. 11-26

English title: Ethics and ecology: acting against the times, between the system and creativity.

Trying to control the current ecological crisis implies an essential rethinking of human acting strategies, which could be described as an act of “repentance”. Conceived as the core of a scientific action theory, repentance also becomes the cornerstone of both a new notion of ethical behavior and of a new philosophy of nature capable of responding to the ongoing environmental emergency. In order to shape a notion of agency that is endowed with reversibility as well as with a cybernetic talent, I suggest two behavioral models: on the one hand, Michaelangelo’s sculpting art and, on the other hand, the bat’s sophisticated echolocation apparatus. An odd coupling indeed, but by no means infertile, at least from a philosophical viewpoint. Both models represent a critique of the contemporary sui securus human agency, which finds correspondence in a politico-economical reality of a mythical type, imagined as void of alternatives. In this light, to historicize the capitalistic myth becomes the prerequisite of a renewed action theory.

Keywords: ecology; behavior; repentance; memory; environment.

Gianluca Cuozzo
Dipartimento di Filosofia e Scienze dell’Educazione
Università degli Studi di Torino
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Andrew Linzey

Religione e sensibilità per la sofferenza degli animali

pp. 27-36

English title: Religion and sensitivity to animal suffering.

This essay addresses the ambiguity of religious perspectives on animals. Some kinds of religious vision can help energise individuals to work for the protection of animals, but others can become the means whereby human beings sustain their own self-interest. As I see it, the challenge for almost all world religions is to find ways of relating the best of their ethical teachings to the newly emerging movement of sensitivity to animals.

Keywords: religious vision; animal theology; animal suffering; animal protection.

Andrew Linzey
Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics
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Luisella Battaglia

Zoopolis. Una sfida per la bioetica animale

pp. 37-52

English title: Zoopolis. A challenge for the animal bioethics.

The interest of bioethics for the entire living world, documented since its origins from the work of F. Jahr (1927), is nowadays confirmed by the “Barcelona Declaration” (1998) which takes into account the purpose of extending its fundamental principles, starting from the concept of dignity, to living beings. In this framework can be placed the draft prepared by S. Donaldson and W. Kymlicka in Zoopolis which prefigures an animal rights political theory in which they are included as citizens in our community. Considering the problematic aspects of this project, it is proposed an interspecific theory, based on a critical review of the capabilities approach and an integration between an ethics of rights and an ethic of care that recognizes the constitutional right of animals to a dignified life.

Keywords: global bioethics; animal rights; interspecific justice; capabilities approach; ethics of care.

Luisella Battaglia
Dafist – Dipartimento di Antichità, Filosofia e Storia
Università degli Studi di Genova
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Maurizio Mori

 

Bioetica

pp. 53-70

English title: Bioethics.

After about half a century, bioethics has its history and different schools of thinking as well as different (even opposite) practical solutions. Instead of presenting the different normative solutions on various issues, bioethics as cultural movement connected with the civil rights movement is distinguished from bioethics as an academic discipline. Moreover, a first initial period (1970s-90s) characterized by a science-friendly attitude is contrasted to a second period (1990s up to now) pervaded by a science-diffident attitude and conservative views.

Keywords: bioethics; history of ethics; abortion.

Maurizio Mori
Dipartimento di Filosofia e Scienze dell’Educazione
Università degli Studi di Torino
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João Maria André

Da un’antropologia della solitudine a un’etica della cura

pp. 71-88

English title: From an anthropology of solitude to an ethics of care.

This essay addresses the development of an anthropology of solitude in situations of extreme vulnerability (i.e., not willed solitude, but solitude
resulting from exclusion) and of an ethics for dealing with it. A contextualization of solitude in the framework of today’s society is thus followed by a description of five anthropological dimensions of solitude: personal rupture, loss of identity, loss of a sense of the future, self-enclosure, forgetting one’s body, and loss of voice and speech. In the second part, the care-based ethics is reoriented in order to address such situations, as an attempt is also made to link it to an ethics and a politics of capabilities leading to an empowerment of the human person.

Keywords: anthropology of solitude; vulnerability; ethics of care; capability.

João Maria André
Faculdade de Letras
Universidade de Coimbra
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Luca Bertolino

Questioni di etica applicata per le pratiche filosofiche

pp. 89-104

English title: Some questions of applied ethics for philosophical practice.

The essay investigates the philosophical practice, firstly focusing on its method and relationship with applied ethics. Afterwards, it explores some applied ethics issues regarding philosophical practice like the therapeutic issue, the risk of philosophical illnesses, the interaction between intellect and will as well as the healthy human understanding. In this way, it aims to outline some paths that can be fruitfully explored by philosophical practitioners and academic researcher together.
Keywords: philosophical practice; applied ethics; therapy; philosophical illnesses; healthy human understanding.

Luca Bertolino
Dipartimento di Filosofia e Scienze dell’Educazione
Università degli Studi di Torino
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Eva De Clercq

Guardare attraverso il “genere”: una lente per scoprire un nuovo mondo etico?

pp. 105-117

English title: The looking-glass of gender: a way to discover a new ethical world?

The present essay proposes to re-think ethics through the looking glass of gender. This process of engendering is a genre of criticism that challenges more traditional ethical theories. Feminist ethics in its many varieties has played an important role in broadening the concerns and methods of moral philosophy. One such example is feminist’s engagement with narrative ethics. The work and lives of Susan Brison, Rita Charon and Martha Nussbaum are exemplary in this regard. The discussion of the merits of each of these positions is followed by a brief critical evaluation of the narrative approach in general. These criticisms lead to the strategy of reflective equilibrium which allows for a balance between stories and principles when solving ethical dilemmas.

Keywords: gender; feminist ethics; narrative ethics; reflective equilibrium.

Eva De Clercq
Institut für Bio- und Medizinethik
Universität Basel
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Adriano Fabris

Etica delle macchine

pp. 119-136

English title: Machine ethics.

This paper discusses some issues concerning the so-called “machine ethics”. Firstly, human agency and machine agency are distinguished clearly, from an ethical viewpoint. Secondly, the concept of “autonomy” is applied to machine agency and is defined as a “relative autonomy”. Finally the principles of an ethical attitude of the human being in relation to the machine world are developed in detail.

Keywords: ethics; machine; artificial intelligence; emerging technologies, robot; autonomy.

Adriano Fabris
Dipartimento di Civiltà e Forme del Sapere
Università di Pisa
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Giovanni Scarafile

Etica delle immagini, spectatorship e la questione ingenua dell’oggettività della rappresentazione

pp. 137-148

English title: Spectatorship, objectivity and the ethics of images.

The objectivity of photographic representation is sometimes declared artless because it springs from a process which makes use of a simplified notion of representation and similarity. However, this kind of objectivity cannot be lightheartedly abandoned, because we will not have the conceptual tools to interpret some important kinds of images.
Evaluating the degree of conformity with the true by a representation is one of the tasks of the ethics of image. It is a discipline which falls within moral philosophy, despite the fact its reference area has been mysteriously declared the exclusive preserve of aesthetics, by a prejudice that would deny the moral philosopher the right to exercise his specialty.
In taking charge of the role of the spectator, the ethics of images rediscovers: a) the role of efficacy in the communication process; b) similarities between knowing moral and hermeneutic knowledge; c) the irrevocability of the role of objectivity.

Keywords: representation; efficacy; hermeneutic knowledge; ethics; photography.

Giovanni Scarafile
Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici
Università del Salento
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Veronica Neri

Etica della comunicazione pubblicitaria. Mondi immaginari e strategie della pubblicità commerciale

pp. 149-164

English title: The ethics of advertising. Imaginary worlds and strategies of commercial advertising.

Contemporary advertising has lost the meaning originally suggested by its etymology: “to make public”.
I pay particular attention to two models: one which focuses on an imaginary based on consumerism and aesthetic commodification, the second based on the social imaginary of “ethical consumption”.
A successful model would need, not only to recover the original role of
advertising, but to go beyond this, in order to become a valid alternative, both to contemporary radical consumerism and to an artificial ethical consumption.
It is important that both models develop more complex objectives that induce ethical reflections on the wisdom of our choices in relation to advertising. Furthermore, advertising needs to establish a dialogic relationship with its audience: one should always wonder if the dream for sale is compatible with an intersubjective relationship, one which aspires to the common good, in order to reach a new advertising imagery that requires a critical approach.

Keywords: advertising; commodity; consumerism; ethical consumption; imaginary.

Veronica Neri
Dipartimento di Civiltà e Forme del Sapere
Università di Pisa
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Roberto Burlando

Etica ed economia

pp. 165-180

English title: Ethics and economics.

This paper suggests some critical notes on the evolution of the relationship between ethics and economics in the recent decades. It highlights the quite modest attention of most economists toward the debates in moral philo-
sophy and their unquestioned acceptance of the rather narrow version of utilitarianism or of its axiomatic versions, expected utility and rational choice, embedded in the predominant view. The crucial role of these theories and of the assumptions of perfect competition and completeness of markets for the neo-liberalistic (free-market) approach is pinpointed, together with some of their main shortcomings. A quick glance at some critical development is then provided with references to the contribution of John Rawls, to the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum and to the discussion of the ethical limits to the working of the markets raised in particular by Elizabeth Anderson and Michael Sandel. Some considerations on the relevance of these issues for the current situation concludes this contribution.

Keywords: instrumental rationality; rational choice; capabilities; ethical limits to the market; social ordering.

Roberto Burlando
Dipartimento di Economia e Statistica “Cognetti de Martiis”
Università degli Studi di Torino
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Robert Audi

L'etica della virtù come risorsa nel mondo degli affari

English title: Virtue ethics as a resource in business.

This article provides an account of virtues as praiseworthy traits of character with a far-reaching capacity to influence conduct. Virtues supply their possessors both with good reasons that indicate, for diverse contexts, what sort of thing should be done and with motivation to do them. This motivational power of virtue is crucial for the question of what kind of person, or businessperson, one wants to be. The article shows how the contrast between virtue ethics and rule ethics is often drawn too sharply and indicates how virtue theories can incorporate both theoretical and practical uses of rules. More generally, it shows how a virtue orientation affects attitudes in management practices and how an understanding of certain virtues can help in making better decisions, both ethically and in relation to success in business.

Keywords: virtue; management; leadership; ethical behavior; vice.

Robert Audi
Department of Philosophy
University of Notre Dame
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Enrico Donaggio

Etica e crisi. La critica sociale come passione

pp. 211-221

English title: Ethics and crisis. Social criticism as passion.

The article discusses one of the most widespread contemporary social
pathologies: the gap between life and criticism, between the capability to judge the present in the name of a different future, more just and desirable (performance par excellence of an ethical posture in the face of our time) and the ability to mobilize, to act consistently and effectively in this direction (his quintessential effect when it turns into social criticism). It identifies the causes of this phenomenon in the uncontested triumph of absolute presentism, a historical regime which is being deconstructed as a shared elaboration of the dominant memory. And in the sadness of the critical passion – a concept that is here articulated and discussed – caused by the critical theories today more in vogue.

Keywords: ethics; social criticism; crisis; critical passion.

Enrico Donaggio
Dipartimento di Filosofia e Scienze dell’Educazione
Università degli Studi di Torino
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Maurizio Ferraris

Dalla mobilitazione totale all’azione esemplare

pp. 223-240

English title: From total mobilization to exemplary action.

We have long lived carrying the weight of ideas and intentions as the
bases of ethics. But what counts are actions, not only in the trivial sense that moral judgments ultimately refer to them, but also and mostly in the sense that actions are behavioural models, empirical facts that can take on a
transcendental role.

Keywords: example; action; collective intentionality.

Maurizio Ferraris
Dipartimento di Filosofia e Scienze dell’Educazione
Università degli Studi di Torino
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